Criminal homework help

 Do you believe the state should  regulate behavior that arguably doesn’t hurt anyone else (for example –  laws regarding the wearing of motorcycle helmets or seat belts). What  laws, if any, do you feel should be private decisions of the individual?
 
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Criminal homework help

Reply must be at least 200-300 words. For each thread, you must support your assertions with at least 2 citations from sources such as your textbook, peer-reviewed journal articles, and the Bible.
Textbook: Vito, G. F., & Higgins, G. E. (2015). Practical program evaluation for criminal justice. Waltham, MA: Elsevier. ISBN: 9781455777709.
**JESSICA**
The Differences Between Evaluations of Program Process and Program Effects
According to the National Research Council (2005), guidance of policies and practices require evidence about the impacts of such policies and practices. The National Research Council (2005) supported this notion by stating that resources can be allocated for effective programs, which will help policy makers in the development of policies and practices. The process is the first element of program evaluation and is commenced after the need for the program has been established (Vito & Higgins, 2015). It identifies what the program does and if it was properly implemented (Vito & Higgins, 2015). The evaluation of the process serves the purpose of determining whether the program is being implemented the way it was intended and to provide feedback (National Research Council, 2005, Vito & Higgins, 2015). Furthermore, the process evaluation includes the use of qualitative research methods (Vito & Higgins, 2015).
Impact evaluations determine whether a program produced the intended outcomes, and the implementation and evaluation of program effects determine both hypothesized and unintended effects (National Research Council, 2005). For example, which factors were the most effective, which were missed, and could the effects be replicated if the setting were changed (National Research Council, 2005). Thus, the assessment of the effects produced by the program is defined as an impact evaluation, according to the National Research Council (2005).
Vito and Higgins (2015) discussed drug courts as one example of an evaluation of program process. One study conducted by Gummelt and Sullivan (2016) evaluated the effectiveness of the Jefferson County Juvenile Drug Court compared to traditional probation. The researchers hypothesized that criminal activities committed by juveniles who completed drug court would decrease by a statistically significant amount (Gummelt & Sullivan, 2016). Gummelt and Sullivan (2016) found when evaluating the process and the effects, the Jefferson County Juvenile Drug Court was a more effective method to reduce recidivism when compared to traditional probation. Thus, lower recidivism rates can lead to lower costs for the community despite traditional probation being less expensive initially (Gummelt & Sullivan, 2016). The researchers discussed some of the factors that aided effectiveness such as the increased supervision and drug court team contacts (Gummelt & Sullivan, 2016).
Another study conducted regarding the program process and effects of drug courts was a qualitative study conducted by Moore et al. (2017). The researchers conducted nine interviews of offenders who participated in the YouCan program for prescription drug addiction offenders aged 18 to 26, which stemmed from the Pinellas County Adult Drug Court (Moore et al., 2017). The program used a multidisciplinary Matrix model, which included social support groups, educational groups, and individual counseling (Moore et al., 2017). The questions included the decision to participate in the program, perceptions before and after the program, program factors most important to success, and life after the program (Moore et al., 2017). The researchers found that the participants’ perceptions of the program were positive (Moore et al., 2017). The study measured effectiveness based upon the participants’ viewpoints and did not analyze quantitative data regarding the treatment program.
The Bible does not discuss drugs or treatment programs, but the Bible does discuss sin. God expects Christians to recognize man’s sinning nature and turn away from sin. Proverbs 28:13 states, “Whoever conceals his transgressions will not prosper, but he who confesses and forsakes them will obtain mercy” (The NIV Study Bible, 1995). 1 John 5:17 provides, “All wrongdoing is sin, but there is sin that does not lead to death” (The NIV Study Bible, 1995).
 
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Criminal homework help

Reply must be at least 200-300 words. For each thread, you must support your assertions with at least 2 citations from sources such as your textbook, peer-reviewed journal articles, and the Bible.
Textbook: Vito, G. F., & Higgins, G. E. (2015). Practical program evaluation for criminal justice. Waltham, MA: Elsevier. ISBN: 9781455777709.
Program Process and Implementation
Change can take place in many phases and in many aspects of life. A prime example of constant changing is the changes that occur within communities. Communities constantly undergo an array of changes to their way of operating and often times in efforts to achieve a more modern and family friendly environment which can promote growth from the family aspect as well as the business aspect. When looking at a community plan there are timelines that dictate operations and time frame of which things can occur. Coordinating resources are done to ensure the overall plan can be achieved. Tracking progress can be an essential tool to ensure resources are being implemented in accordance with the plan. Using tracking systems, noting successes, and documenting obstacles is a positive to ensure stakeholders and support for the project remains high (Sharma, Chuang, Byrd-Williams, Vandewater, Butte, Hoelscher, 2019).
As the program or plan progresses, the data collected, and accomplishments achieved should be collected and shared to maximize time contributed to the project and the expertise gathered. Often times anonymity is involved in projects and community projects to ensure attention is on the overall goal and not on individuality. There can still be ample data sharing and community involvement without giving out specific information that harms the integrity of remaining anonymous. The biggest reason for sharing with the community and the public is for the constant source of feedback to ensure the project is headed in the right direction; there is also the benefit of others using the project to further their own initiatives which can be beneficial for everyone involved (Sharma, Chuang, Byrd-Williams, Vandewater, Butte, Hoelscher, 2019).
Once the project is nearing completion, look towards the achievements that have occurred along the way and ensure to congratulate everyone involved with the hard work and acknowledge the time and effort being put forth to achieve a community goal. This is also the prime opportunity to ensure the entirety of the plan was followed through and completed as instructed and to reflect on what can be done in the future and what could be done differently to ensure a higher level of efficiency (Lok, Hung, Walsh, Wang, Crawford, 2005).
Program Evaluation
Evaluation is the last phase in the process of program implementation and program effectiveness. Evaluation is an essential step to take but can often be unknowingly woven into every step you’ve taken to get this far without realizing it. Many communities look back to examine and evaluate all of the efforts put into their plan for community improvement to determine if the effort and time was worth the cost. This evaluation is an important step to complete to finish the process (Sharma, Chuang, Byrd-Williams, Vandewater, Butte, Hoelscher, 2019).
Two key factors to determining success while evaluating is defining the criteria for success and establishing the measure of impact. Using these two aspects of definitions of success allows for an objective viewpoint on the totality of the outcome and the process itself. Evaluations should be able to be reflected throughout the process and each phase of change or progress through the plan. Defining what success means can take the form of what success looks like to the community and to those directly involved (Lok, Hung, Walsh, Wang, Crawford, 2005)
By examining all of the data and considering what was reasonable in terms of the time and resources allocated to the project, one can then note the obstacles to success and what policies need to be implemented or which policies were obstructing the pathway to change and success. Change is a constant in nearly all aspects of life and it is an annual process that is on a continuum. Examining, reassessing, and evaluating the end results and the effects of the overall project is key to future success and sustaining the current success that has been achieved (Lok, Hung, Walsh, Wang, Crawford, 2005)
 
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Criminal homework help

Crime scene reconstruction depends largely on the efficacy of the crime scene process and the accuracy of data (measurements, angles, location of evidence, condition of evidence, weather at the time of crime, and lighting at the time of the crime.  The crime scene investigators must be certain that if required they could return to the scene where the crime occurred and recreate the scene or construct a facsimile of the crime scene as it was when it was first encountered.  Inaccuracies or mistaken interpretation may result in a reconstruction that does not hold true to the actual crime scene when it occurred.  Personnel necessary for the reconstruction may have a special training certification to participate in the reconstruction for example shooting scene reconstruction analyst or blood spatter pattern analyst.
Focus your discussion on the following:

  • In crime scene logic processes both inductive and deductive reasoning is utilized.  Explain the difference between the two methods and their application to the crime scene protocol.
  • Name 2 major limitations of crime scene reconstruction.
  • Name and explain the 3 kinds of crime scene fingerprints.
  • Fingerprints are one of the mainstays for crime scene processing. There are a number of methods for obtaining fingerprints from a scene.  Explain main process used known as ‘dusting’ and how the print is recovered
 
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Criminal homework help

When preparing for a crime scene reconstruction consideration must be made concerning the types of evidence you are using to come to the conclusion that you are basing the reconstruction on. Real evidence for physical evidence is the best source of producing a reconstruction. The relevance of the physical evidence must be established. For example, it a shooting reconstruction was done based on a ricochet off a wall that struck the victim the angle of impact from the wall where the bullet initially impacted and struck the victim will allow you to determine the line where the shooter stood when he or she fired and hit the wall. The problem is if the line is unobstructed evidence must be located that helps establish where the shoot was when he or she fired.  On that line stemming from the wall a cartridge casing will be significant. Shoe impression along the line may be from the shooter or it may be anyone who happened to walk there before or after the shooting took place. So the cartridge casing is likely to be ejected from the shooters weapon and give the reconstruction team an idea of where the shooter was when he or she fired. The footwear impression may or may not be that of the shooter so it is circumstantial even though it is a physical artifact and should be collected.
Crime scene reconstruction can be done by setting the scene up with personnel playing the roles of suspect, victim, and witnesses.  It can also be done by placing crime scene dummies in locations for the same people.  The more modern method is using a LASER scanner that videos, charts, and measures the entire scene and be used to reconstruct the scene in a white room.
Scenario: Tim and Rhonda just got engaged. They are having a small gathering to celebrate at a local restaurant called the Dew Drop Inn. Rhonda had finally gotten her divorce from James who had been very abusive both physically and emotionally. They have no children. Dinner was finishing up about 8:00 PM and the party was moving into the bar. Out of the blue, James showed up at the restaurant bar and accused Tim of being the reason that Rhonda divorced him (James).
A fist fight broke out when James tried to grab Rhonda and Tim interceded. James grabbed a beer bottle and smashed Tim in the head. Tim pulled out a compact pistol and placed it directly against James’ chest and shot James dead with a single bullet through the heart. Tim grabbed Rhonda and ran from the restaurant, where they jumped into his 2014 Red Honda Civic and drove to Rhonda’s apartment where they both lived.
The police went to the apartment where Rhonda and Tim lived and noted the Red Honda Civic was parked in front of the apartment. A search warrant for seizing the car and searching Rhonda and Tim’s apartment was obtained. James was found to be out on parole for a burglary in which he had served two years in prison. Rhonda was home but Tim was not. Rhonda told the police that she had been receiving threatening emails form James, her ex-husband who was threatening to kill her, Tim, and then himself. She had saved the emails on her Tablet.  The search revealed a men’s white dress shirt in the hamper covered with what appeared to be high velocity blood spatter consistent with gunshot blowback.  A box of 9mm cartridges with ten rounds missing was found in the dresser of the night stand. An empty pistol box for a 9mm Glock model 26 compact pistol was found next to the ammunition.
Research the following points, and write a 4–6-page paper fully explaining each point:

  • Define physical evidence.
  • You may use a number of resources to research the methods and significance of evidence in this scenario.  Consider using articles form juried forensic publications, information from the AIU library, or textbooks from this or other classes you might have had.  Identify the evidence you found and what evidence might still be available. Include proper handling and packaging techniques for your evidence.
  • Explain the importance of expert testimony and the report writing that would be involved.
  • Explain the role the forensic scientist in the laboratory will have with your submitted evidence, and explain the techniques the forensic scientist will use to process your evidence.
 
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Criminal homework help

1.  Select a topic in policing. Examples: stop and frisk, search warrant, broken window theory, women in police, police stress on job, police discretion, police training, public views on police etc.
2.  Decide on 5-10 key terms that you will use in your search. YOU HAVE TO MENTION 5-10 relevant key terms for library search in the paper
3.  Use the link from the John Jay website to the library website. Next, go to the databases. Search database: Criminal Justice Abstracts. Limit the articles’ search to recent years: 2010 – 2020 and to peer-reviewed journals only.
4.  From a larger group of selected articles, based on the titles and abstracts, choose 5.
5.  Make sure that at least TWO articles come from the top criminology/criminal justice journals:
Criminology, Criminology and Public Policy, Women in Criminal Justice, Prison Journal, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Justice Quarterly, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Journal of Criminal Justice, International Journal of Criminal Justice,  Criminal Justice Journal, Feminist Criminology, Police Quarterly, Policing and Society, Policing: Policy and Practice, Policing: An International Journal, Criminal Justice and Behavior, Contemporary Sociology, The British Journal of Criminology, Crime and Delinquency, Punishment and Society, Theoretical Criminology.
6.  You can also search a specific journal (see above) by selecting it in the library search and reviewing what was published on your topic in the recent years. It is more time consuming but an interesting search. In addition, you might need to do search through the individual journal to be able to locate relevant articles.
7.  Read the articles and then choose ONE that the best represents your topic.
WHAT TO SUBMIT:
Turn in no more than 1 page long paper (with list of 5 scholarly articles in APA and a summary of one article). Specifically:
1.  Provide the title or the topic
2.  Provide key terms that you used
3.  List 5 scholarly articles that you selected and follow APA style! (Deductions will apply if you do not follow APA). There is a link on the library website to the APA.
And this is an example:
Celinska, K., & H.Sung (2014). Gender differences in the determinants of prison rule violations. The Prison Journal 94, 2, 220-241.
4.  Summarize in two paragraphs the article that you selected from the 5 journals you used.
 
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