One definition of diversion is “the halting or suspension before conviction of formal criminal proceedings against a person, conditioned on some form of counter performance by the defendant” (George, 1984).

There are several reasons for the use of diversion. Complete the following in regard to this topic:

  • List 3 reasons, with explanations, for the use of diversion, and discuss why it would be beneficial to the criminal justice system.
  • Explain how the use of diversion would have an effect on law enforcement.
  • Is diversion cost-effective?

Submit a 4–5-page paper to your instructor. Support your answers with outside sources using APA format.

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Professional Ethics and Liability protection

Evaluate public health policies and practices as they relate to legal and ethical implications for individuals and populations.


You have recently been promoted to Health Services Manager at Three Mountains Regional Hospital, a small hospital located in a mid-size city in the Midwest. Three Mountains is a general medical and surgical facility with 400 beds. Last year there were approximately 62,000 emergency visits and 15,000 admissions. More than 6,000 outpatient and 10,000 inpatient surgeries were performed.

On your first day in the position, the CEO requested that you design a short in-service training session for employees on the importance of professional ethics and liability protections.

You will need to develop an information sheet that explains the similarities and differences between laws and ethics, and the impact of unethical practices on healthcare. An information sheet provides brief and clear information on the required subject. Often, bullet points are utilized in an information sheet; however, since employees will be expected to know and understand the material thoroughly, your information sheet should be more detailed and offer supporting evidence, including a reference list.

  1. The information sheet should give your employees enough information to understand the differences and similarities between ethics and laws, the impact of unethical practices on healthcare, and the importance of professional ethics.
  2. Make sure to use audience-specific language and tone in your information sheet. Remember, you are writing this information sheet for your co-workers; however, the CEO and the Board of Directors may attend.
  3. Be creative, and make your information sheet fun, yet still clearly organized.

NOTE – APA formatting for the reference list, and proper grammar, punctuation, and form are required.

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Tort Risks And Liabilities

Background:  With some understanding of the legal system, the GC owners can now shift focus to examining specific areas of law that create potential risks and liabilities for their business.   The group knows from their business experience, that businesses face serious and costly risks and legal liabilities stemming from tort law.

Unintentional harm resulting from accidents, such as in the unintentional torts of negligence and product liability, can result in costly litigation.  For example, Madison’s remodeling business was sued by a client injured when one of the roofing employees accidentally dropped a ladder on that client’s leg.

The GC owners are concerned about the possibility of accidents occurring in Green Clean public offices that could create risks of premises liability under negligence.

Instructions:  Winnie and Ralph have given you the responsibility of analyzing and summarizing potential negligence and premises liability risks that GC might face in its business operations.  Specifically, you are tasked with creating a presentation report of your findings for GC owners at their next meeting with TLG.

The presentation should address only the tort of negligence and include the following parts.

Analyze and describe specific potential tort risks and liabilities that GC could face under negligence for each of the following:

1.  Injury to GC employees occurring during the performance of cleaning services on clients’ commercial property

• include a specific example as part of the analysis report

2.  Injury to any GC office employee working within the scope of his/her job occurring during business hours in GC’s public offices.

• include a specific example as part of the analysis report

3.  Injury to any GC customers occurring on the premises of the GC’s public offices.

• include a specific example as part of the analysis report

Format Instructions:

Prepare the analysis in a report, addressed to Winnie and Ralph, to be used in discussion with the GC owners.

The report should address the questions in the Instructions above.  Follow the format below.


TO:              Winnie James, Ralph Anders

FROM:         (your name)


RE:              Green Clean Negligence Risks and Liabilities











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CONCEPT REVIEW:   Before beginning the interactive,  review LO1 on page 174. Recall that a legally binding contract requires four elements: offer, acceptance, capacity, and legal object.       Case:   Read the case below and discuss the question.

Mr. Barnard is a landlord who has a house to rent. A college student,  Julie, saw the sign in the front yard and is interested in renting the house. Mr. Barnard tells her the house is for rent for a total of 12  months, and that rent will be $899 in cash each month plus utilities.  After touring a couple of houses in the neighborhood, Julie decides to rent Mr. Barnard’s house and comply with his terms.

Discuss the elements of the contract and identify the issue and applicable rule of law.

The Definition of a Contract


LO 9-1

This part of the text focuses on contracts. A contract,  according to the Restatement (Second) of Contracts, is “a promise or  set of promises for the breach of which the law gives a remedy or the  performance of which the law in some way recognizes a duty.”1 Another, perhaps simpler, way to think of a contract is that it is a set of legally enforceable promises.


A contract has four elements: the agreement, the consideration, contractual capacity, and a legal object. The agreement consists of an offer by one party, called the offeror, to enter into a contract, and an acceptance of the terms of the offer by the other party, called the offeree. The agreement is discussed in more detail in the latter part of this chapter.

The second element of a contract is the consideration,  which is defined as the bargained-for exchange. Another way to think of the consideration is that it is what each party gets in exchange for his or her promise under the contract. Consideration is further discussed in Chapter 10.

The third element is contractual capacity,  the legal ability to enter into a binding agreement. Most adults over the age of majority have the legal ability to enter into binding contracts, but Chapter 10  explains when people have either limited or no capacity to enter into these agreements. Persons who do not have the capacity to enter into legally binding contracts include those who are under the age of majority, intoxicated or suffering from mental illness. Chapter 10 also discusses the fourth element of a binding, legal contract, legal object. The contract cannot be either illegal or against public policy.

The elements of a contract, as well as defenses to its enforcement, are listed in Exhibit 9-1.

Exhibit 9-1 A Valid Contract Has Four Elements, and No Defenses Can Be Raised against It




Lack of genuine assent


Lack of proper form

Legal purpose



Sometimes the parties may enter into what appears to be a legally binding and enforceable contract because all four elements of a contract are present, but one of the parties may have a defense to the contract’s enforcement. Such defenses fall into two categories. The first,  discussed in Chapter 12, is a lack of genuine assent.  A contract is supposed to be entered into freely by both parties, but sometimes the offeror secures the acceptance of the agreement through improper means, such as fraud, duress, undue influence, or misrepresentation. In these situations, there really is no genuine assent to the contract, and the offeree may be able to raise the lack of genuine assent as a defense to enforcement of the agreement.

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Civil order control functions

Civil order control functions are basically centered on those activities mostly performed by agencies other than the police or by specialized units within the police forces. In a 4–6-page paper, answer the following:

  • How does the United States deal with problems related to civil order control? (25%)
  • How does this method(s) compare and contrast with other cited countries, such as Saudi Arabia, Japan, England, and China? Explain the similarities and differences that exist. (30%)
  • What factors contribute to these similarities and differences that exist between the United States and each cited country? Why do they exist? (40%)

Be sure to cite all references in APA format (5%

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Daily Lesson Planning

An educator’s daily lesson plan is the most detailed and updated guide that they have to facilitate learning in their classroom. In essence, lesson planning is the educator’s opportunity to decide, in advance what curriculum to introduce, the instructional delivery method they will use, and how intended objectives will be assessed. After reading chapter 8, perform these two tasks.

  • Jones, Jones, and Vermette (2011) did a three year study of novice educators’ lesson planning practices to determine if patterns of common blunders may exist in their design process.
    • Discuss the six most common pitfalls that research uncovered that novice educators make when planning lessons.

8.5 Common Lesson-Planning Pitfalls

We will end the chapter by discussing some of the most common pitfalls that teachers make when designing lesson plans.These pitfalls apply to all the lesson plan formats discussed in this chapter. Jones, Jones, and Vermette (2011) conducted athree-year study examining novice teachers’ lesson planning and implementation to determine the six most common lesson-planning blunders. Knowing what the most common lesson plan impediments are will help you navigate around them. You maynotice that these are similar to the pitfalls to writing instructional objectives, first described in Chapter 3; many of the sameprinciples apply.

Unclear Learning Objective

This lesson-planning misstep happens when teachers focus on what content they will cover in the lesson instead of focusing onthe learning outcomes the students will have because of exposure to that content. Teachers who focus on learning outcomesassure that the lesson is learning-centered, and eliminate the difficulties of determining whether the lesson is teacher-centeredor student-centered. How will you know what you want students to learn? It is stated in your instructional objectives. Toovercome this pitfall, write the learning outcome from the student’s perspective. For example, “At the end of this lesson, I canidentify five types of carbohydrates” or “I can compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.”

Assessment of Understanding Not Administered

New teachers, overwhelmed with classroom-management issues, administration tasks, and extensive content to cover,sometime continue teaching without ever stopping to see what (if anything) students have learned. In many cases, discussion isthe sole way to evaluate student thinking. While this strategy is a useful formative assessment, without any tangible evidence ofstudent learning, there is no real accountability or indication that students have learned anything at all. To overcome thispitfall, consider authentic assessment as a strategy so that students create a learning product that is evidenced in an active andvisible process that helps students link content learned to the intended learning objectives.

Failure to Collect Multiple Formative Assessments During Lesson

To provide clues to students’ current level of understanding, teachers should use multiple means of collecting informationabout students’ thinking throughout the lesson. They can then use this information to differentiate instruction to meet learners’exact needs. A strong focus on evidence creation during the lesson will help document student achievement.

To overcome this pitfall, consider interspersing throughout the lesson plan Wiggins and McTighe’s (2011) deconstruction ofunderstanding into six facets: explain, interpret, apply, perspective, empathy, and self-knowledge.

Assessment Fails to Match the Learning Objective

By mismatching the assessment of learning with the instructional objective, you will never know if the objective was met. Thispitfall can be tricky because teachers assume that students who are engaged in the assigned task will automatically gain thecognitive attribute intended.

To overcome this pitfall, consider using learning targets and the backward design process (Stiggins, 2008; Wiggins & McTighe,2011) and begin lesson planning with “identify desired results.” Rather than beginning lesson planning with a set of topics youneed to cover and then, after the fact, creating an assessment to match the topics, begin with the walk-away knowledge, skills,or dispositions you want students to have and then schedule activities that will lead to these take-aways. (For more informationon the backward planning process, see Chapter 4.)

Lesson Plan Lacks an Engaging Start

Beginning a lesson with a quick “hook” with little or no meaningful student engagement leads to students being frustrated andunfocused rather than motivated to learn. Failure to start the lesson effectively leads to classroom-management issues,confusion, and off-task behaviors.

To overcome this pitfall, take the beginning of the lesson time to create conditions in which the students can play with ideas tohelp assimilate new concepts into their existing schema. This activity may take a longer or shorter amount of time dependingon the discovery task, level of students’ motivation, or depth of prior knowledge.

Students Are Passive Recipients of Knowledge

Lessons that only involve PowerPoint presentations or teacher lectures in which students sit quietly and listen have beenshown to be ineffective. Likewise, lessons that focus on recollection of facts rather than a negotiation of conceptual meaning arealso ineffective for enduring understanding. Plan instructional strategies that are student-centered and learning oriented.

The traditional “passive learner” paradigm is easier to overcome if preservice teachers are able to experience effective teachingduring their own K–16 experiences.



What do you think is the most damaging lesson-planning pitfall? Why?






  • Read Valerie’s case from the classroom found in section 8.6 in your textbook.
    • Answer question number three: “Valerie claims to use three different planning models: direct instruction, inquiry based (specifically, the 5E model), and social interaction, depending on the day, the objective, and the activity. Critique her match of models with the lesson purpose. Offer your own examples of each of these models for a curricular area of your choice.”  (Hansen et al., 2015)

chapter 8.6

From the Desk of: Valerie

March 7

Hello Dr. Z.—

So, you want to know about lesson planning? Well, let me tell you—it isn’t always as easy or as logical as the textbooksmake it out to be. This is something I have had to learn the hard way—because with 35 squirmy eighth graders in eachof my science classes, many whose hormones are rising here in the spring and all—well, you just can’t afford to come toschool unprepared—and live to tell about it, that is. I can’t always think in the “heat of the battle.” I have to have therelevant vocabulary terms listed out, and at least the words I am going to use to explain them, or I end up getting my“mords wixed up!” Then I can relax and let the planned activities just flow. But, not just any activity—it has to relate towhat we are doing in science or they start to just “blow it off.”

So, I find lesson planning to be difficult, but necessary. I work mainly from the eighth-grade science syllabus and the unitplans that we put together with other science teachers from the district last fall. I developed a lesson plan form that Isaved as a template in Word, so it comes up each time as a blank document and it automatically saves to a differentname without locking up my original form. I plan for one week at a time—sometimes two, if I have the time, and try tomake sure I know what I am doing in general the next week by Friday of each week. That way I can enjoy the weekendmore, and not have that feeling of dread that used to hit on Sunday afternoon. Next year should be easier, since I willhave most of the details already developed, and can modify the lessons depending on the students and what I have towork with, instead of starting from scratch.

The models for lesson planning that we learned at university are useful, and I have tweaked them a bit to make themrelevant to my own teaching context. I know (and have been taught over and over again) that one plans from theobjectives and the assessment, and then develops the activities to match. While this works to keep me focused, I stillthink about the activity, or how to teach the objective, while planning the assessment, because for me it really is arecursive process. Like, how can you unpack a standard if you have no idea about what the student could be doing todemonstrate that understanding?

Another thing that makes planning easier for me is to get a weekly routine that I can use to structure the learningobjectives and assessment around. For example, Monday I introduce a new concept (or bring in new informationregarding a concept from the week before), and plan for a demonstration, some lecture, some discussion, and a jigsawgroup or two. So the learning objectives and assessments for that day focus on an NGSS disciplinary core idea, and theability to explain the concept in one’s own words. For example, the core idea for these next two weeks is:

Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current movements of the rocks at Earth’s surfaceand provides a framework for understanding its geologic history. (ESS2.B Grade 8 GBE)

My objective for Monday’s lesson was for the students to explain the terms fault and plate boundaries, to define thevarious types of faults, normal, reverse, and strike slip, and the various types of plate boundaries, divergent, convergent,and transform. On Tuesday, I scheduled a lab activity that investigated the core idea presented on Monday. So theobjectives and assessments related to science and engineering practices (from the NGSS) applied to the topic, likeconstructing explanations. We took pieces of foam blocks and cut them to represent the types of faults and faultboundaries, and discussed concepts such as extension, moving apart, down-dropped blocks, and devised explanations ofwhat happens when these faults move, as in an earthquake. Wednesdays are research days. We took the essentialquestions from this part of the unit, the observations from the lab reports, and working in teams (usually four)formulated a specific question and organized an Internet research strategy—using the laptop carts that are reserved onthat day. We started with a site that allowed the students to chart the movement of land masses to better understandplate tectonics, and then they developed their own questions to research from there. Thursday is model-planning day—the teams report to each other on the results of their research and develop one visual model (2D or 3D) per team ofwhat they found in their research. The models must depict the cross-cutting concepts associated with that standard. Forexample, in the current unit (plate tectonics), the concepts they must show are either a pattern (like a numericalrelationship) or a scale (some concepts are too small to see, and others occur too slowly; they must show what scalethey are using). On Friday, each team presents the visual model and everyone submits an individually written report onwhat was learned. When planning, I match up the objectives and assessment strategies to the activity type, and thenschedule that objective for the corresponding day.

Is this the best way to do it? I don’t know. In an ideal world, Internet research and labs would be more spontaneous,driven by “teachable moments” as they arise. But I can only schedule a set of laptops one day per week—they are sharedwith other classrooms. And the lab is only available one day per week—so I have to plan carefully. Not only that—I havetwo students with disabilities in the fourth-period class, and several students throughout the day who struggleacademically, and at least ten students scattered among the classes who are eager, interested, and clearly ready foradvanced work. So, within these activity-scheduled days, I can plan for some predictable differences in advance. Forinstance, I always post my notes, PowerPoints, video clips, and websites that explain the same or similar concepts as thebook chapter to Edmodo, our course LMS, so the students can view them at home ahead of time or after class. Thosewho are still learning academic English or who read slowly can use computer screen readers to go over the informationone more time. On Wednesday, research day, students who want to explore advanced concepts can do so. And I try tomix the groups up so that each is as balanced as possible with each group having a mix of abilities.

So what planning model do I use? That also depends on the day, the objective, and the activity. I think that in eighth-grade science, given the resources and schedule that I have to work with, disciplinary core ideas (from the NGSS) arebest introduced with a direct-instruction approach. This seems to be the most efficient for me. And it matches what Iknow about teaching content—you have to start somewhere with science concepts—read, or listen, or view a video clip.We still explore and wonder using this type of lesson—I always have them develop a prediction or pose questions. Nowthat’s a hard one. They are so accustomed to trying to figure out correct answers, it is really hard for them to ask arelevant question. On Tuesday and Wednesday, I definitely use a 5E plan, since it fits so well with science, and it is moreof an inquiry-based approach. The students are getting used to it; at first, they just wanted me to tell them the answers. Iguess I use a social-interaction approach on Thursday and Friday, since they are primarily working in groups and haveto figure out how to report their findings.

Gotta go—team planning meeting in five minutes—see you Friday and we will catch up.


Observation Notes From Dr. Zwijacz

March 14

This week’s post from Valerie illustrates the thought processes that many novice teachers go through when planning.While she understands the value of lesson planning and the confidence it brings to implementation, she is surprised byhow much time it takes. Furthermore, when asked to analyze how she plans, she realizes that the linear processexplained in most textbooks is only part of the story. Like many other new teachers, Valerie plans with the content andan activity in mind, and then adapts it to make sure it aligns with the objective and assessment systems. At this point inher development as a teacher, she still has to make those connections explicit.

I noticed how her organizational schedule is really an attempt to reduce the cognitive load of planning. Given thecomplexities of the content, the student needs, and the limitations on resources, she is developing manageablestrategies that meet the needs of most of her students at the same time. The routines that she developed provide alogical structure for those strategies and allow her to concentrate on delivering the curriculum.

One place that has been especially helpful in instructional planning is an activity types taxonomy,http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/HOME. This site lists three basic activity types for science: conceptual knowledgebuilding (such as read, attend to a demonstration, or discuss), procedural knowledge (such as practice, prepare, recorddata, or collect samples), and knowledge expression (such as write a report, create an image, develop a model, ordevelop a concept map). This site also offers a taxonomy of activity types for other subject areas, such as literacy,mathematics, music, science, social studies, visual arts—and more. A number of teachers have used this site to helpfocus their thinking in planning. In most cases, well-defined objectives and assessments can be interpreted as aligning toone or more of these activity types, and the suggestions can spark teacher thinking on appropriate activities.

I followed up with Valerie regarding the team meeting she was heading to. Her team has decided that next year, theywant to develop at least one thematic and interdisciplinary unit in the fall, and plan for one project-based unit in thespring. To help with the planning, they have decided to embark on a lesson study among the members of the team; theeighth-grade teachers of math, science, English, social studies, technology, and art. The purpose of the lesson study is tolearn something about the content of each other’s classes, and to identify places where the content could be integratedfor a theme or a project. For example, Valerie requires that the visual models her students produce use cross-cuttingconcepts identified in the standards, and she makes sure that she tries to connect to the state Common Core Standardsin ELA and Math as much as possible. She doesn’t always see the connections that could be made, however. In the platetectonics series of lesson plans, for example, visual models could be explained by using variables in a mathematicalproblem. The math teacher readily sees those connections, while it might take Valerie a bit longer, if at all, to discoverand add them to her lesson. So, the team is embarking on a lesson study to familiarize themselves with each other’scurriculum and ways of planning and structuring a lesson, in the hopes of generating some ideas for their goals for thefollowing year. And, guess who is presenting first!

—Celina Zwijacz, Ph.D.


Discussion Questions

    1. Visit the learning activity types wiki provided by the College of William and Mary School of Education, and reviewa set of activity types for one of the subject areas listed. (Go to http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/HOME.) Discusspossible connections between this taxonomy of activities and the objectives and assessments of any plausible dailylesson plan. What descriptions would need to be added to assure an alignment of an activity with objective andassessment?
    1. The lesson-planning process described in this chapter is linear, but the process that Valerie and Dr. Z. speak ofdescribes a more recursive thought and action. What are your thoughts as you plan a lesson? Describe your mentalprocesses.
  1. Valerie claims to use three different planning models: direct instruction, inquiry based (specifically, the 5E model),and social interaction, depending on the day, the objective, and the activity. Critique her match of models with thelesson purpose. Offer your own examples of each of these models for a curricular area of your choice.
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